In book “Guns, Germs, and Steel”, Chapter 10 focuses on the history of agriculture. The chapter begins with a discussion of the origins of agriculture, which began in different parts of the world at different times. The earliest known examples of agriculture date back to around 9500 BC in the Fertile Crescent region of the Middle East. Agriculture then spread to other parts of the world, including China, India, Africa, and Europe.
The chapter goes on to discuss the impact that agriculture had on human societies. Agriculture allowed for the growth of civilizations and the rise of empires, such as the Inca Empire in South America. Agriculture also led to increased food production, which allowed for population growth. However, agriculture also had some negative impacts, such as the spread of diseases.
Overall, the chapter provides a detailed overview of the history of agriculture and its impact on human societies. It is an essential read for anyone interested in learning more about this topic.
For thousands of years, the origins and development of civilizations has been a mystery. That is, until 1997, when Robert J. Young’s book Guns, Germs, and Steel was published. According to this book, Europe was fortunate in agriculture due to its location; animals were domesticated there; germs and Papua New Guinea fell into disuse; and Inca civilization perished (Young et al., n.d.).
The book explains how the Fertile Crescent was blessed with a temperate climate, ample rainfall, and good soil. This allowed for the development of early agriculture, which in turn led to the domestication of animals. The book also goes into detail about how germs developed in certain areas of the world due to the close proximity of humans and animals. These germs then killed off entire civilizations that were not immune to them.
Papua New Guinea and the Inca Empire are two examples of civilizations that did not have guns, germs or steel. As a result, they were at a disadvantage when Europeans arrived with these technologies. The book reveals how geography played a role in determining which civilizations thrived and which ones did not.
This book is a must-read for anyone interested in understanding the origins of civilization and inequality. It provides a detailed and insightful look at how the world came to be the way it is today.
The climate in Papua New Guinea is determined by its location on the map. Because it falls near the equator, the country has a hot tropical climate all year long. This makes growing crops difficult, but one of the only things that can thrive in this environment is sago. Sago is extracted from a tree and made into flour which can be dried in the sun and made into dough.
Once dry, they can rehydrate the dough and eat it. The book goes on to say that there are three main crops that were domesticated: wheat, rice, and maize. Each of these crops has different ideal climates. Wheat grows best in cold or temperate climates while rice grows best in hot and humid climates. Maize does well in a variety of climates, but it was first domesticated in Mexico.
The book also talks about how the Inca Empire was able to become so powerful. One reason is because of their agricultural practices. The Incas lived in the Andes mountains and cultivated terraces on the mountainsides. They grew potatoes, maize, quinoa, and amaranth at high altitudes. They also had llamas which they used as beasts of burden.
Another reason the Inca Empire was so powerful is because of their political system. The book explains that the Inca Empire was divided into four quarters, each ruled by a lord. The lord of the quarter was responsible for collecting taxes and conscripting labor for public works projects. This helped to ensure that everyone in the empire was able to contribute to the growth and prosperity of the empire.
The book goes on to say that the Inca Empire was ultimately conquered by the Spanish because they had guns and steel while the Incas did not. The Spanish were also able to bring diseases with them that decimated the Inca population. Without their guns, germs, and steel, the Inca Empire was no match for the Spanish.
Sago is hard to store, lacks flavor, and isn’t filling. Wheat is easy to grow and harvest in the Fertile Crescent. It has more protein than sago, can be stored for a long time without going bad, and tastes good. But beyond their reach are things that are beyond their control–yet again, Europeans had luck on their side.
The Fertile Crescent was the birthplace of agriculture, and the place where plants were first domesticated. There are many theories as to why this is so, but the most likely explanation is that the area is just naturally suited for plant growth. The climate is mild, there is ample rainfall, and the soils are rich in nutrients.
All of these factors come together to create an ideal environment for plant life. The Fertile Crescent is also home to a number of large animals that were easy to domesticate, such as sheep, goats, and pigs. These animals provided a ready source of food, wool, and other materials that could be used by humans. In contrast, the Americas had very few large animals that were suitable for domestication.
Plants and animals quickly spread into Europe and North Africa in the Fertile Crescent. Similarity was spread rapidly as well, with inventions such as writing and wheels. People cultivated crops that had been domesticated rather than those that grew naturally. This suggests that people readily adopted agriculture in the Fertile Crescent.
The book states that the Fertile Crescent had an agricultural advantage due to its location and climate. The Crescent was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The two rivers provided a irrigation system and the climate was good for growing crops. The book then talks about how the Inca Empire was able to conquer other empires.
The main reason was due to guns, germs, and steel. The Inca Empire had guns while the other empires did not. Germs were also a big factor in the fall of other empires. The book states that the Inca Empire was able to conquer others because they had an agricultural advantage.
In conclusion, the book argues that guns, germs, and steel were the main factors that allowed the Spanish to conquer the Inca Empire. The book also provides a detailed account of how the Inca Empire was able to become so powerful in the first place.