Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Cognition is the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, memory, language, and reasoning. The early perspective of psychology was structuralism, which was founded by Edward Titchener. Structuralism focused on breaking down mental processes into their basic elements. Another early perspective in psychology was functionalism, which focused on how mental processes functioned to help people adapt to their environment.
Functionalism was founded by William James. Gestalt psychology is another early perspective in psychology that emphasized holistic thinking and perception. Gestalt psychology was founded by Max Wertheimer. These three perspectives laid the foundation for modern psychological research.
Functionalism, Cognitive, and Humanistic were the three early psychologies’ (theories) that I picked. These three theories will be discussed in detail later. They are different schools of thought in psychology.
Functionalism is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the functions of the mind rather than its structure. The founder of functionalism is William James. He argued that the mind should be studied in terms of its function, or how it helps an organism adapt to its environment.
Cognitive psychology is a perspective that emphasizes the study of mental processes such as memory, perception, and language. The founders of this perspective are Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. They both believed that cognitive processes are responsible for our ability to think, learn, and remember information.
Humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasizes the unique qualities of human beings and their potential for growth and self-actualization. The founder of humanistic psychology is Abraham Maslow. He argued that every person has the potential to reach their highest level of development, known as self-actualization.
These are three different perspective of psychology and each focus on different things. Functionalism focuses on the function of the mind, cognitive psychology focuses on mental processes, and humanistic psychology focuses on human potential. Each perspective has contributed to our understanding of the mind and behavior.
In addition to cells, tissues and organs are the basic components of all living organisms. These fundamental components enable organisms to adapt, thrive, and survive. The idea that what makes something a thought (or any other type of mental state), according to functionalism, is not its internal make-up but rather its function (or role it plays) in the cognitive system of which it is a part.
In psychology, a school of thought is a collection of ideas that shares common assumptions. Schools of thought in psychology are no different. In fact, there are four major schools of thought in psychology: structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, and cognitive neuroscience.
Structuralism was the first school of thought in psychology. Structuralists believed that the mind could be understood by analyzing its basic elements, or structures. The most famous structuralist is Wilhelm Wundt, who is often considered the father of psychology.
Functionalism is the second oldest school of thought in psychology. Functionalists believe that the mind can best be understood by looking at the purpose it serves. The most famous functionalist is William James.
There are two main types of psychology: cognitive and behaviorism. Cognitive psychology focuses on the way people think, while behaviorism covers how people learn behaviors. Some common cognitive thinking patterns include polarized thinking (seeing things in black-and-white terms), overgeneralization (making sweeping assumptions based on one data point), and always needing to be right. For example, a person with strong cognitive tendencies might say they failed a task even before attempting it.
Another perspective is behaviorism. A behaviorist would say that everything learned is based on consequences- what happens after the behavior. This means that if a behavior leads to a good consequence, it is more likely to be repeated. If the behavior leads to a bad consequence, it is less likely to be repeated.
So, in conclusion, there are two main perspectives in psychology- cognitive and behavioral. Each of these perspectives has different ideas about how people learn and think. However, both perspectives are important in understanding human behavior.
Overgeneralization occurs when someone forms a broad conclusion or assumption from past experiences instead of looking at what is happening in the present. For example, some people may think their current partner will hurt them like their ex-partner did, even if there is no evidence to support that belief.
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder that typically includes the fear of having a panic attack in a public place and not being able to escape. People who suffer from agoraphobia often avoid places where they have had panic attacks or any place where they think they may have a panic attack.
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that is characterized by severe weight loss. People with anorexia often see themselves as overweight, even when they are underweight. They will often diet and exercise excessively in order to lose weight. Anorexia can be life-threatening if left untreated.
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder that is characterized by binge eating followed by purging. People with bulimia often feel out of control when they binge eat and will then purge in order to get rid of the calories they have consumed. Bulimia can also be life-threatening if left untreated.
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. It includes the study of conscious and unconscious processes, as well as feeling and thought. Psychology also studies how people interact with one another and how they understand and perceive the world around them.
Cognition is the mental process that allows us to acquire, store, and use knowledge. It includes functions such as attention, memory, language, decision making, and problem solving.
Personal agency is a term used to describe the exercise of free will. Personal agency refers to our decisions in life, the paths we take, and the results they produce. Humanism is how we interact with everything on a daily basis. Accurate in recognizing reality, accepting oneself, others, and nature are all examples of humanistic ideals.
The goal of humanism is a more fulfilling and richer life. The first psychological perspective is Structuralism. Structuralism was mostly practiced in the early 1900s and was mainly focused on breaking down mental processes into their smallest parts. They did this by analyzing how people see, hear, and feel stimuli. One of the most famous structuralists was Edward Titchener. He believed that the mind could be broken down into its basic elements, which he called sensations and images.
The second perspective is Functionalism. Functionalism developed after structuralism as a reaction to it. Where structuralists focused on breaking down mental processes, functionalists were interested in understanding the function or purpose of those processes. They believed that psychology should focus on how the mind helps us adapt to our environment. One of the most famous functionalists was William James.
The third perspective is Gestalt psychology. Gestalt psychology is concerned with perception and how we organize information. Gestalt means “unified whole.” This perspective emphasizes that we often see things as patterns or shapes, rather than individual elements. One of the most famous gestalt psychologists was Max Wertheimer.
The fourth perspective is Behaviorism. Behaviorism is the study of observable behavior. It focuses on how our environment affects our behavior. Behaviorism began to take off in the early 1900s with the work of John B. Watson. He argued that psychology should focus only on observable behavior, and he did not believe that internal mental states could be studied.
The fifth perspective is Psychodynamic psychology. Psychodynamic psychology is concerned with the role of unconscious mental processes in our behavior. This perspective was first proposed by Sigmund Freud. He believed that our unconscious mind is full of hidden desires and impulses that can influence our behavior.